Personal, Real & Nominal Account

 

account types

Personal Accounts:

                                     Accounts recording transactions with a person or group of persons are known as personal accounts. These accounts are necessary, in particular, to record credit transactions. Personal accounts are of the following types:

 

(a) Natural persons: An account recording transactions with an individual human being is termed as a natural persons’ personal account. eg., Kamal’s account, Mala’s account, Sharma’s accounts. Both males and females are included in it

 

(b) Artificial or legal persons: An account recording financial transactions with an artificial person created by law or otherwise is termed as an artificial person, personal account, e.g. Firms’ accounts, limited companies’ accounts, educational institutions’ accounts, Co-operative society account.

 

(c) Groups/Representative personal Accounts: An account indirectly representing a person or persons is known as representative personal account. When accounts are of a similar nature and their number is large, it is better tot group them under one head and open a representative personal accounts. e.g., prepaid insurance, outstanding salaries, rent, wages etc.

 

When a person starts a business, he is known as proprietor. This proprietor is represented by capital account for all that he invests in business and by drawings accounts for all that which he withdraws from business. So, capital accounts and drawings account are also personal accounts.

 

 

The rule for personal accounts is: Debit the receiver

                                                     Credit the giver

 

 

Real Accounts

Accounts relating to properties or assets are known as ‘Real Accounts’, A separate account is maintained for each asset e.g., Cash Machinery, Building, etc.

Real accounts can be further classified into tangible and intangible.

 

(a) Tangible Real Accounts: These accounts represent assets and properties which can be seen, touched, felt, measured, purchased and sold. e.g. Machinery account Cash account, Furniture account, stock account etc.

 

(b) Intangible Real Accounts: These accounts represent assets and properties which cannot be seen, touched or felt but they can be measured in terms of money. e.g., Goodwill accounts, patents account, Trademarks account, Copyrights account, etc.

 

The rule for Real accounts is: Debit what comes in

                                               Credit what goes out

 

 

Nominal Accounts

Accounts relating to income, revenue, gain expenses and losses are termed as nominal accounts. These accounts are also known as fictitious accounts as they do not represent any tangible asset. A separate account is maintained for each head or account, Interest received account are some examples of nominal account

 

The rule for Nominal accounts is: Debit all expenses and losses

                                                      Credit all incomes and gains

 

 

 

 

 

References

http://www.inc.com/encyclopedia/accounting-methods.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basis_of_accounting

http://www.investopedia.com/terms/a/accountingmethod.asp

http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/understanding-accounting-methods.html

http://www.bna.com/Accounting-Methods-Principles-p2849/

http://www.answers.com/topic/accounting-method

 

 

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