Management Process



Planning is the selection and relating of facts and making and using of assumptions regarding the future in the visualization and formalization of proposed activities believed necessary to achieve desired  result.

Purpose or Importance of Planning

¨  Primacy of planning

¨  To offset uncertainty and change

¨  To focus attention on objectives

¨  Helps in co-ordination

¨  Helps in control

¨  To increase organizational effectiveness


There are five types of planning:

1. Missions and objectives.

2. Strategies and polices.

3. Procedures and rules.

4. Programs.

5. Budgets.



Organizing is the part of managing that involves establishing an intentional structure of roles for people to fill in an organization. The purpose of an organization structure is to creating an environment helpful for human performance. It is then management tools and not an end. Although the structure must define the task to be done, the rules so established must also be designed in the light of the abilities and motivations of the people available designing an effective organization structure is not an easy managerial task. Many problems arises in making structures fit situations.


 Organizing activities include

1. Specification of job responsibilities

2. Grouping of jobs into respective work units

3. Allocation of resources


 Staffing involves filling and keeping filled, the positions in the organization. This is done by identifying the work force requirement inventorying the people available and recruiting, selecting, placing, promoting, appraising, planning the careers, compensating and training.

The activities are

1. Recruitment

2. Selection

3. Training and Development

4. Compensation

5. Promotion

6. Evaluation and

7. Rewarding people to achieve enterprise goals.



Leading is influence people so that they will contribute to organization and group goals. All managers would agree that most problems arises from peoples desires and problems , their behavior as individuals and in groups and that effective managers also need to be effective leaders. Leading involves motivation, leadership styles and approaches and communications.

The activities under this category are

1. Providing proper direction

2. Guidance and Motivation

3. Clarity in communication to the work force



 It is regarded as a key function of a manager to bring in harmony among individuals and an effort towards accomplishment of goals.

1. Marginal decision making and

2. Sub Optimization are some of the new approaches developed in the field of decision making.



Controlling is measuring and correcting individuals and organizational performance. It involves measuring performance against goals and plans, showing where the deviations from standards exit and helping to correct them. In short controlling facilitates the accomplishment of plans.Controll activity generally relate to the measurement of achievement. Some means of controlling like the budget for expenses, inspection, record of labors-hours lost, are generally familiar. Each shows whether plans are working out.


The activities include

1. Establishing performance standards enabling the work force to achieve the goals (both short term and long term)

2. Enhancing the employee performance through performance appraisal or rating of work

3. Comparison of performance against the standards to identify deviation or work problems and take corrective measures

4. Bench marking is one of the management techniques that facilitates an organization to uplift its performance levels to the best of industry standards and also catch hold of the strengths of the competitors and rectify the weaknesses prevailing in one’s own firm.





Definition or Explanation




Predetermining a course of action for accomplishing organizational objectives


Organizing Arranging the relationships among work units for accomplishment of objectives

and the granting of responsibility and authority to obtain those objectives


Staffing Selecting and training people for positions in the organization


Directing Creating an atmosphere that will assist and motivate people to achieve desired

end results




It is regarded as a key function of a manager to bring in harmony among individuals and an effort towards accomplishment of goals.
Controlling Establishing, measuring, and evaluating performance of activities toward

planned objectives
















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