Excel – Formulas


In Excel. One of the powerful features is formulas. A formula is an equation that is used to perform calculations on data in a worksheet. We can use formula to perform Mathematical, Statistical & date/time operations on a single value or a set of values by using operators.

The cells in which formulas are stored, display the result of the calculation and not the formula. In Excel, a formula starts with an equal (=) sign and should be followed by the operation to be performed.

We can use any number of operators in a single formula. MS- Excel evaluates the formula according to the order of precedence of the operators.

excel formulas

Examples of the formula expressions:

1. Suppose the values in the cells B2, C2, D2 are 34, 28, 56 respectively. To add these values and

to have the result in the cell F2,


Step     i) Click on the cell in which total marks is to be displayed, i.e F2

ii) Type ― = ( B2 + C2 + D2 )‖

iii) Press Enter

The value ―118‖ will be displayed in F2.

2. Suppose the value of the cell B6 is 78345. Divide the value by 5 and have it in the cell E6:


i) Click the cell E6.

ii) Type ― = (B6/5) ―

iii) Press Enter

The value ―15669‖ will be displayed in the cell E6.


3. Multiply the value 549 of the cell C3 with the value 43 of the cell F3 and have the result in the cell I3.


i) Click the cell I3

ii) Type ― = ( C3 * F3)

iii) press Enter

The result ―23607‖ will be displayed in the cell I3.


Mathematical statistical and financial  functions in ms-excel.


Functions :

A function is a built-in, readymade and frequently used formula that accepts data, perform calculations & returns results.

To enter a function in a cell,

i) Click the cell in which you want the result of the function to be displayed.

ii) Type ―=‖ sign.

iii) Type the function name.

iv) Type the cell range & other arguments within brackets.

v) Press Enter.

Note : To specify a range of cells, a colon (:) is used between the first & last cell addresses.

Example: =Average(B1: B10) Calculates the average of the values in the cells B1 to B10


Mathematical functions with syntax and purpose:

i) Sum( number1, number2,…) – gives the sum of the values in a specified range

ii) Abs( number) – gives the absolute value of the number

iii) Fact( number) – gives the factorial of the number

iv) Sqrt(number) – gives the square root of the number

v) Log(number) – gives the logarithm of the number


Statistical functions with syntax and purpose:

i) Average( range of cells) – calculates the average of the values in a specified range

ii) Stdev(range of cells) – calculates the standard deviation of the given data

iii) Mean( range of cells) – calculates the mean of the given data

iv) Max( range of cells) – gives the maximum value within the range specified

v) count( ) – counts how many numbers are there in the list of arguments
















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