Development of Programming Languages

 

Machine Language

Computer languages

The lowest-level programming language (except for computers that utilize programmable microcode) Machine languages are the only languages understood by computers. While easily understood by computers, machine languages are almost impossible for humans to use because they consist entirely of numbers. Programmers, therefore, use either a high-level programming language or an assembly language. An assembly language contains the same instructions as a machine language, but the instructions and variables have names instead of being just numbers.

Programs written in high-level languages are translated into assembly language or machine language by a compiler. Assembly language programs are translated into machine language by a program called an assembler.

Every CPU has its own unique machine language. Programs must be rewritten or recompiled, therefore, to run on different types of computers.

Sometimes referred to as machine code or object codemachine language is a collection of binary digits or bits that the computer reads and interprets. Machine language is the only language a computer is capable of understanding.

 

Assembly language

Sometimes referred to as assembly or ASLassembly language is a low-level programming language used to interface with computer hardware. Assembly language uses structured commands as substitutions for numbers allowing humans to read the code easier than looking at binary. Although easier to read than binary, assembly language is a difficult language and is usually substituted for a higher language such as C.

A programming language that is once removed from a computer’s machine language. Machine languages consist entirely of numbers and are almost impossible for humans to read and write. Assembly languages have the same structure and set of commands as machine languages, but they enable a programmer to use names instead of numbers.

Each type of CPU has its own machine language and assembly language, so an assembly language program written for one type of CPU won’t run on another. In the early days of programming, all programs were written in assembly language. Now, most programs are written in a high-level language such as FORTRAN or C. Programmers still use assembly language when speed is essential or when they need to perform an operation that isn’t possible in a high-level language.

 

High level language.

A programming language such as C, FORTRAN, or Pascal that enables a programmer to write programs that are more or less independent of a particular type of computer. Such languages are considered high-level because they are closer to human languages and further from machine languages. In contrast, assembly languages are considered low-level because they are very close to machine languages.

The main advantage of high-level languages over low-level languages is that they are easier to read, write, and maintain. Ultimately, programs written in a high-level language must be translated into machine language by a compiler or interpreter.

The first high-level programming languages were designed in the 1950s. Now there are dozens of different languages, including Ada, Algol, BASIC,COBOL, C, C++, FORTRAN, LISP, Pascal, and Prolog

The term “High Level Language” was originally used to distinguish things like FortranLanguage from things like assembly language. Therefore, originally “high level language” very much included Fortran, Basic, COBOL, PL/I, and a little later, C.

Very early in the development of computers attempts were made to make programming easier by reducing the amount of knowledge of the internal workings of the computer that was needed to write programs. If programs could be presented in a language that was more familiar to the person solving the problem, then fewer mistakes would be made. High-level programming languages allow the specification of a problem solution in terms closer to those used by human beings. These languages were designed to make programming far easier, less error-prone and to remove the programmer from having to know the details of the internal structure of a particular computer. These high-level languages were much closer to human language.

 

 

 

 

References

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Low-level_programming_language

http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/M/machine_language.html

http://cs.brown.edu/~adf/programming_languages.html

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/130670/computer-programming-language

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Application+development+language

http://www.play-hookey.com/computers/language_levels.html

http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/science/programming-language-development-low-level-languages.html

http://quizlet.com/12883871/chapter-13-program-development-and-programming-languages-flash-cards/

http://quizlet.com/12883871/chapter-13-program-development-and-programming-languages-flash-cards/

http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Assembly_language.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assembly_language

 

 

 

 

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