Co-ordination is the unification, integration, synchronization of the efforts of group members so as to provide unity of action in the pursuit of common goals. It is a hidden force which binds all the other functions of management.

Management seeks to achieve co-ordination through its basic functions of planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. That is why, co-ordination is not a separate function of management because achieving of harmony between individuals efforts towards achievement of group goals is a key to success of management. Co-ordination is the essence of management and is implicit and inherent in all functions of management.



 According to Mooney and Reelay, “Co-ordination is orderly arrangement of group efforts to provide unity of action in the pursuit of common goals”.

According to Charles Worth, “Co-ordination is the integration of several parts into an orderly hole to achieve the purpose of understanding”.


  • Direct personal contact – according to this principle co-ordination is best achieved through direct personal contact with people concerned.  Direct face-to-face communication is the most effective way to convey ideas and information and to remove misunderstanding.
  • Early beginning – co-ordination can be achieved more easily in early stages of planning and policy-making.  Therefore, plans should be based on mutual consultation or participation.  Integration of efforts becomes more difficult once the unco-ordinated plans are put into operation.  Early co-ordination also improves the quality of plans.
  • Reciprocity – this principle states that all factors in a given situation are interdependent and interrelated.  For instance, in a group every person influences all others and is in turn influenced by others.  When people appreciate the reciprocity of relations, they avoid unilateral action and co-ordination becomes easier.
  • Continuity – co-ordination is an on-going or never-ending process rather than a once-for-all activity.  It cannot be left to chance, but management has to strive constantly.  Sound co-ordination is not fire-fighting, i.e., resolving conflicts as they arise.





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